Physical Science objectives by units

The student will be able to:

 

Introduction

Give the definition of science.

Explain the need to specialize in science.

Give the 2 major division of science.

Give the branches of both Physical and Biological science

Define measurement and give the need for set standards

List the quantities needed to be measured in a system

Give the standards for mass, weight, length, volume, time, temperature and Metric and British

Explain the relationship between matter and energy in our universe

Tell the difference between atoms, compounds and mixtures.

 

Atoms, Molecules and Compounds

Define the atom

Give contributions of Democritus, John Dalton, John Newland, Jons Berzillus and Dmintri Mendelyev

State the atomic theory

Give the symbols of 50 commonly used elements

Explain the make up of the atom

Tell the significance of the outer electron shell to an atoms behavior

Draw and atom using the box from the Periodic Table

Show how to use the Periodic Table relating to an atoms size and behavior

Give 6 common radicals and their valence number

Know the rules for naming compounds

Be able to name common compounds

 

Kinetic Theory and Solutions

 

Define kinetic

Give the Kinetic Theory of Matter

Explain thermal expansion and give uses

List the phases of matter

Explain the changes of phases in terms of the kinetic theory

Define heat

Tell how a liquid thermometer functions

Give 4 types of thermometers

Explain the formation of both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scale

Explain the Kelvin scale with reference to absolute zero

Define and give the parts of a solution

Define and give examples of common solution types

Give factors that influence the rate of solute dissolving in solutions

 

Electrolytes: Acids, Bases and Salts

Define and explain how a solution can be an electrolyte.

Give the 3 types of electrolytes.

Explain why pure water is not an electrolyte.

Define and give characteristics of acids

Give 6 common acids and show how they ionize in solution

Tell how acids react with metal

Explain how the acid is produced and give common uses of: sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric

Define and give characteristics of bases.

Explain how the base is produced and give common uses of sodium, ammonium and calcium hydroxides

Explain the pH scale.

Define and tell how a salt is produced

Give the neutralization reaction

Give 8 common salts and give their use.

Explain the importance of and how to obtain NaCl.

 

Common Gases

 

Describe and give the make up of our atmosphere

Give the discovers of oxygen and how they did it

Give 6 ways we produce oxygen today

Give 6 uses of oxygen

Explain oxidation of a substance

Tell the difference between rapid and slow oxidation

Give the characteristic colors of 5 metal oxides

Define kindling temperature and relate it to both fire and spontaneous combustion

Give characteristics and uses of nitrogen gas

Explain the production of and 3 uses of carbon dioxide

Give uses and characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen, helium, neon and argon.

 

Fossil Fuels

 

Define both fossil and fuel

Give characteristic of good fuels

Give examples of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuel

Tell how coal is formed. Give the stages in coal formation.

Tell the difference between bituminious and anthracite

Describe and give uses for the destructive distillation of both coal and wood.

Explain the formation of petroleum

Give the significance of the oil dome in obtaining petroleum

Explain the need for and the process of refining petroleum

Tell how natural gas is formed and transported to your home

Give the types of natural gas

 

Rubber and Plastics

 

Give characteristics of rubber that make it useful.

Explain how natural rubber is obtained and processed.

Give major use of rubber and tell the different types thereof.

List 3 additives to rubber

Give 3 man made rubbers, how they are produced and their uses

Define plastic.

Give the 2 types of plastic and their characteristics

Give 3 ways to make plastic

Give 7 thermoplastics and their uses

Give 5 thermosetting plastics and their uses.

 

Radioactivity

 

Define radioactivity

Explain why and atom is radioactive

Trace the discovery of radioactivity

Explain where the energy comes from when an nucleus breakdown

Give the characteristics of radioactive materials

Give the 3 types of radioactivity, their characteristics and formation

Explain alpha decay of the uranium atom

Tell how carbon 14 is produced in our atmosphere

Explain how carbon 14 can be used to date a once living thing

Give 2 contributions of Ernest Rutherford

Give the job of and the “bullets” for a particle accelerator

Give the characteristics of isotopes

Define a radioisotope and give 5 uses for them

Describe the splitting of uranium atoms listing all byproducts

Tell how Einstein’s formula is related to radioactivity

Give the 3 isotopes of uranium and tell which will fission

Label and tell the function for the parts of as commercial nuclear reactor

Give uses for nuclear reactors

Give the drawbacks of using nuclear reactors

Explain thermonuclear fusion and give uses for it

Tell what breakeven point refers to in a controlled fusion reaction

 

Construction Materials

 

Give the 2 types of wood and how each is used on construction

Define rough, green, and treated lumber

Explain how plywood and paper are produced

Give the 3 types of rock and tell which is best for construction and why

Give examples of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock used in construction

Tell how cement is produced and used

Give the parts and uses of concrete

Tell how bricks are made and 3 different uses

Tell how glass is produced and why it is so easy to recycle

Give the 2 major types of paint ,their uses and limitations

Give the parts and finishes found in paints

 

Waves and Sound

 

Define a wave, wavelength, lambda, amplitude, crest, trough, frequency, period, Hertz

Tell the relationship between frequency and period

Give the units of frequency, period and wavelength

Give the wave formula and work problems to solve for velocity, wavelength and frequency

Tell the difference between the 2 types of waves, transverse and longitudinal

Give examples of the 2 types of waves

Define sound

Work problems to find the time, distance of sound in different media

Tell the difference between frequency heard and loudness heard

Explain how the ear functions and why we hear the frequencies we do

Explain “boilermakers” ear

Relate “threshold of hearing and threshold of pain” to the decibel scale of loudness

Define resonance and give examples of it occurring with sound

 

Optics and Light

 

Give evidence to back the particle, wave, and quantum theories of light

Define polarization and tell how it proves one of the theories

Define and give examples of incandescence, fluorescence and bioluminescence.

Explain how light is produced on a sub atomic level

Tell what can happen when light hits an object

Give the standards for the brightness, intensity and illumination of light

Define and give uses of a laser

Give the characteristics of lasers

Define optics

Tell the difference between real and virtual images

Give the law of reflection

Give the characteristics of and the uses of plane, concave and convex mirrors

Define and give the 2 types of lenses

Define refraction and work problems with Snell’s Law

Draw ray diagrams with mirrors and lenses

Give uses of both concave and convex lenses

Solve problems using the lens maker equation

Tell the difference between near and farsightedness in eye shape, characteristics and correction

 

Electrostatics

 

                          Define electrostatics

                        Give Coulomb’s Law and solve problems involving the force between charged particles

                          Explain the ignorance of the names of positive and negative for charges

                        Describe an electric field and the forces it can produce

                        Solve problems with electric fields, charges, force and distances

 Draw the correct number of lines emitted by a charge

  Explain the concept of potential and solve problems for it and the potential difference

 

Motion

 

                        Match units with variables in both metric and British systems.

 

                        Identify constant velocity and solve problems objects under constant velocity

 

a.       Define and give frames of reference

b.      Be able to solve an equation involving s, v and t

c.       Interpret and plot a position-time graph for positive and negative numbers

d.      Determine the slope of a curve on a position-time graph

 

                        Define acceleration and give examples of it in action

a.       Calculate average acceleration using correct units given 2 velocities

 

.      Calculate for final velocity, initial velocity, distance, time, or acceleration using the 3 velocity formulas for acceleration.

a.       Calculate final velocity under condition of uniform acceleration

b.      Determine displacement given any 2 of the quantities: a, t, and v

c.       Be able to solve problems of motion with objects under uniform gravitational acceleration

d.      Understand the definition of free fall and its causes and solve problems using it.

 

           Force and F = ma

  

 

:

 

                        Give Newton’s 3 laws of motion.

a.       Define force and identify the 4 basic forces

b.      State Newton’s 3 Laws

 

                        Equate inertia with the 1st Law of Motion

 

                        Find the net force acting on an object.

a.       Be able to determine the net force that causes acceleration

 

                        Solve problems using the 2nd Law of Motion, F = ma.

a.       Distinguish between mass and weight

b.      Define friction and be able to solve problems using the coefficient of friction

 

                        Give examples of  the 3rd Law in action.

a.       Identify an action-reaction pair of forces and its role in a body’s acceleration

b.      Recognize the link between Newton’s 3rd law and the conservation of momentum

c.       Distinguish between external and internal forces

 

PHYSICS IS PHUN

 

PHYSICAL SCIENCE