Physical Science objectives by units
The student will be able to:
Give the definition of science.
Explain the need to specialize in science.
Give the 2 major division of science.
Give the branches of both Physical and Biological science
Define measurement and give the need for set standards
List the quantities needed to be measured in a system
Give the standards for mass, weight, length, volume, time, temperature and Metric and British
Explain the relationship between matter and energy in our universe
Tell the difference between atoms, compounds and mixtures.
Atoms, Molecules and Compounds
Define the atom
Give contributions of Democritus, John Dalton, John Newland, Jons Berzillus and Dmintri Mendelyev
State the atomic theory
Give the symbols of 50 commonly used elements
Explain the make up of the atom
Tell the significance of the outer electron shell to an atoms behavior
Draw and atom using the box from the Periodic Table
Show how to use the Periodic Table relating to an atoms size and behavior
Give 6 common radicals and their valence number
Know the rules for naming compounds
Be able to name common compounds
Kinetic Theory and Solutions
Give the Kinetic Theory of Matter
Explain thermal expansion and give uses
List the phases of matter
Explain the changes of phases in terms of the kinetic theory
Tell how a liquid thermometer functions
Give 4 types of thermometers
Explain the formation of both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scale
Explain the Kelvin scale with reference to absolute zero
Define and give the parts of a solution
Define and give examples of common solution types
Give factors that influence the rate of solute dissolving in solutions
Electrolytes: Acids, Bases and Salts
Define and explain how a solution can be an electrolyte.
Give the 3 types of electrolytes.
Explain why pure water is not an electrolyte.
Define and give characteristics of acids
Give 6 common acids and show how they ionize in solution
Tell how acids react with metal
Explain how the acid is produced and give common uses of: sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric
Define and give characteristics of bases.
Explain how the base is produced and give common uses of sodium, ammonium and calcium hydroxides
Explain the pH scale.
Define and tell how a salt is produced
Give the neutralization reaction
Give 8 common salts and give their use.
Explain the importance of and how to obtain NaCl.
Describe and give the make up of our atmosphere
Give the discovers of oxygen and how they did it
Give 6 ways we produce oxygen today
Give 6 uses of oxygen
Explain oxidation of a substance
Tell the difference between rapid and slow oxidation
Give the characteristic colors of 5 metal oxides
Define kindling temperature and relate it to both fire and spontaneous combustion
Give characteristics and uses of nitrogen gas
Explain the production of and 3 uses of carbon dioxide
Give uses and characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen, helium, neon and argon.
Define both fossil and fuel
Give characteristic of good fuels
Give examples of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuel
Tell how coal is formed. Give the stages in coal formation.
Tell the difference between bituminious and anthracite
Describe and give uses for the destructive distillation of both coal and wood.
Explain the formation of petroleum
Give the significance of the oil dome in obtaining petroleum
Explain the need for and the process of refining petroleum
Tell how natural gas is formed and transported to your home
Give the types of natural gas
Rubber and Plastics
Give characteristics of rubber that make it useful.
Explain how natural rubber is obtained and processed.
Give major use of rubber and tell the different types thereof.
List 3 additives to rubber
Give 3 man made rubbers, how they are produced and their uses
Give the 2 types of plastic and their characteristics
Give 3 ways to make plastic
Give 7 thermoplastics and their uses
Give 5 thermosetting plastics and their uses.
Explain why and atom is radioactive
Trace the discovery of radioactivity
Explain where the energy comes from when an nucleus breakdown
Give the characteristics of radioactive materials
Give the 3 types of radioactivity, their characteristics and formation
Explain alpha decay of the uranium atom
Tell how carbon 14 is produced in our atmosphere
Explain how carbon 14 can be used to date a once living thing
Give 2 contributions of Ernest Rutherford
Give the job of and the “bullets” for a particle accelerator
Give the characteristics of isotopes
Define a radioisotope and give 5 uses for them
Describe the splitting of uranium atoms listing all byproducts
Tell how Einstein’s formula is related to radioactivity
Give the 3 isotopes of uranium and tell which will fission
Label and tell the function for the parts of as commercial nuclear reactor
Give uses for nuclear reactors
Give the drawbacks of using nuclear reactors
Explain thermonuclear fusion and give uses for it
Tell what breakeven point refers to in a controlled fusion reaction
Give the 2 types of wood and how each is used on construction
Define rough, green, and treated lumber
Explain how plywood and paper are produced
Give the 3 types of rock and tell which is best for construction and why
Give examples of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock used in construction
Tell how cement is produced and used
Give the parts and uses of concrete
Tell how bricks are made and 3 different uses
Tell how glass is produced and why it is so easy to recycle
Give the 2 major types of paint ,their uses and limitations
Give the parts and finishes found in paints
Waves and Sound
Define a wave, wavelength, lambda, amplitude, crest, trough, frequency, period, Hertz
Tell the relationship between frequency and period
Give the units of frequency, period and wavelength
Give the wave formula and work problems to solve for velocity, wavelength and frequency
Tell the difference between the 2 types of waves, transverse and longitudinal
Give examples of the 2 types of waves
Work problems to find the time, distance of sound in different media
Tell the difference between frequency heard and loudness heard
Explain how the ear functions and why we hear the frequencies we do
Explain “boilermakers” ear
Relate “threshold of hearing and threshold of pain” to the decibel scale of loudness
Define resonance and give examples of it occurring with sound
Optics and Light
Give evidence to back the particle, wave, and quantum theories of light
Define polarization and tell how it proves one of the theories
Define and give examples of incandescence, fluorescence and bioluminescence.
Explain how light is produced on a sub atomic level
Tell what can happen when light hits an object
Give the standards for the brightness, intensity and illumination of light
Define and give uses of a laser
Give the characteristics of lasers
Tell the difference between real and virtual images
Give the law of reflection
Give the characteristics of and the uses of plane, concave and convex mirrors
Define and give the 2 types of lenses
Define refraction and work problems with Snell’s Law
Draw ray diagrams with mirrors and lenses
Give uses of both concave and convex lenses
Solve problems using the lens maker equation
Tell the difference between near and farsightedness in eye shape, characteristics and correction
Give Coulomb’s Law and solve problems involving the force between charged particles
Explain the ignorance of the names of positive and negative for charges
Describe an electric field and the forces it can produce
Solve problems with electric fields, charges, force and distances
Draw the correct number of lines emitted by a charge
Explain the concept of potential and solve problems for it and the potential difference
Match units with variables in both metric and British systems.
Identify constant velocity and solve problems objects under constant velocity
a. Define and give frames of reference
b. Be able to solve an equation involving s, v and t
c. Interpret and plot a position-time graph for positive and negative numbers
d. Determine the slope of a curve on a position-time graph
Define acceleration and give examples of it in action
a. Calculate average acceleration using correct units given 2 velocities
. Calculate for final velocity, initial velocity, distance, time, or acceleration using the 3 velocity formulas for acceleration.
a. Calculate final velocity under condition of uniform acceleration
b. Determine displacement given any 2 of the quantities: a, t, and v
c. Be able to solve problems of motion with objects under uniform gravitational acceleration
d. Understand the definition of free fall and its causes and solve problems using it.
Force and F = ma
Give Newton’s 3 laws of motion.
a. Define force and identify the 4 basic forces
b. State Newton’s 3 Laws
Equate inertia with the 1st Law of Motion
Find the net force acting on an object.
a. Be able to determine the net force that causes acceleration
Solve problems using the 2nd Law of Motion, F = ma.
a. Distinguish between mass and weight
b. Define friction and be able to solve problems using the coefficient of friction
Give examples of the 3rd Law in action.
a. Identify an action-reaction pair of forces and its role in a body’s acceleration
b. Recognize the link between Newton’s 3rd law and the conservation of momentum
c. Distinguish between external and internal forces
PHYSICS IS PHUN